(Late Antiquity to Renaissance)
Medieval debates on lying and its relationship to character are intimately connected to the question of what integrity demands. During this period concepts of honour were deployed as a means or mode of preserving integrity. Christian intercourse with pagans and the centrality of faith to Christianity raised issues about the relationship between practice and belief. During the scholastic period the rise of the university made acute the tension between intellectual integrity and integrity of character, in the religious sense.
A. The permissibility of lying
B. The virtue of honesty in Augustine, Aquinas and their opponents
C. Rise of the university as a sociological structure and phenomenon creating new possibilities and pressures for personal and professional integrity [see Integrity and Institutions]